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The Origin And Nature Of Our Institutional Models
"The dormitory building can be the same for the two sexes and of standard size and construction" (p. 264).
"A standard dormitory to accommodate 105 pupils seems to combine economy of construction with efficiency in management" (p. 265).
"It is with some trepidation that I approach the problem of floors for in the history of institutional construction I presume no one subject has received more thorough discussion, yet the problem is not wholly solved...In hallways, bathrooms, diningrooms and dayrooms for adult working boys, I believe terrazzo has no equal. For adults' wards and dayrooms where very little water is required heavy battleship linoleum securely cemented to concrete underfloor may be used to advantage. For wards and dayrooms of low grade, untidy patients, where floors require frequent wiping up of spots, the rubber flooring is unsurpassed.
"In every institution, however, there is a large number of destructive patients who will move anything that is movable and destroy anything that is not indestructible.
"Linoleum and rubber flooring in a building for these patients are not satisfactory inasmuch as the patients will quickly have the linoleum and rubber separated from the under surface and broken and destroyed. In building for this class the flooring should be made of terrazzo everywhere except in the sleeping wards. Here, first class maple flooring seems to serve the purpose best. Kitchen floors should be of first quality slate, although a terrazzo floor here is satisfactory. A well troweled granolithic makes a satisfactory laundry floor. Rubber flooring throughout would make the most serviceable, quiet, and suitable covering for the school building. If this is too expensive, a satisfactory treatment is to have all halls and toilet rooms laid in terrazzo and school rooms with maple flooring. The best floor covering for the Assembly Hall is rubber. Again, if this is too expensive, heavy, battleship linoleum, securely cemented on a concrete under floor is quite satisfactory.
"In the hospital on account of its noiselessness, the ease with which it can be cared for, and because of its non-absorbent qualities, the free use of rubber flooring is justified, even though it may be expensive .... Most of the stairs throughout the institution should be steel with 1/4" rubber inset treads securely cemented in place.
"In the buildings for destructive patients, the stairs should be built of either terrazzo or concrete" (pp. 260-262).
"There are certain institution buildings where one floor construction is clearly indicated. These are infirmary and nursery buildings where there should be no steps, the floor being located at but a slight elevation above the outside grade, and the building entered by means of slightly graded ramps. The laundry buildings should be on one floor, consisting of one large room. This makes the supervision by one person easily possible" (pp. 265-266).
In contrast to the specification for residents' living units stand the guidelines for employees' living quarters: "In planning and developing an institution it is of vital importance that the living quarters of the employees should have due consideration. No matter how Utopian a State Government, Board of Trustees, Superintendent or Medical Staff may be in their expressed desire of what shall be done for the benefit of the children in the institution, what is actually accomplished is what the employees do for the children. The higher the scale of intelligence and the higher the living ideals of the employees of an institution the higher degree if service will they render in caring for the children. Hence, how important it is to make housing and living conditions such as will attract to the service and retain in the service, the highest type of employee. Small, attractive, homes to accommodate about 20 employees each should be conveniently located throughout the grounds. These should consist of single room arrangement with good bath and toilet conveniences provided and a common reception room. These small homes make possible the gathering together of groups of congenial people. There should also be provided a number of small cottages for married employees. There should be a recreational center, -- in fact, an up to date, well furnished club, consisting of a large common lounge, reading room, smoking room, pool room, bowling alleys, and a store. The officers' quarters should be a little village of small houses that could be occupied by the families of married officers or five to seven single officers. In this center should be a building designed for kitchen, dining room and recreational purposes" (p. 266).
Account of the ceremonies at the laying of the corner-stone of the New York asylum for idiots, at Syracuse, September 8, 1854. Albany: J. Munsell, 1854.
American Medical Association. Mental retardation; a handbook for the primary physician. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1965.
Anderson, M. L. Instruction of the feebleminded. Conf. Social Work, 1918, 536-543.