Library Collections: Visual Still: Enlargement

A row of hospital beds with stuffed animals and dolls.

Visual Still Information

Title: Christmas In Purgatory, Page 87
From: Christmas In Purgatory: A Photographic Essay On Mental Retardation
Original caption: "Those who visited Bedlam in London in l814 could see countless patients clad only in loose shrouds and chained by their arms or legs to the wall in such a way that they could stand upright or remain seated. One patient for 12 years wore rings around his neck and waist and was tethered to a wall; because he had resisted attempts to control his movements by means of a chain manipulated from a neighboring room, the warden had also taken the precaution of lashing his arms to his sides. An administrator explained that chains were the surest device for restraining recalcitrant mental patients. Even Dr. Monro stated in response to an investigating committee of the House of Commons that no one dared use chains on noblemen, but that they were indispensible in dealing with the poor and with those in public institutions."
Emil Kraepelin
Creator: Burton Blatt and Fred Kaplan (photographer)
Date: 1974
Source: Available at selected libraries